Forest mapping is at the heart of what we do at Geografiska informationsbyrån. As forest comprise vast areas it is as made for remote sensing and EO. Forest information can be produced for a wide range of costumers with different information needs. It might be an investor who wants to learn more about the background of the company and the natural assets it possess, a NGO investigating the exploitation of natural resources in a far off region or a company that wants to follow up harvests or other forestry practices within it’s own holdings.
Sentinel 2 mosaic over parts of Liberia displaying the emergence of a timber road network and the subsequent partial harvest of the tropical forest.
In som geographic regions the optical sensors on Sentinel 2 and related satellites mostly detect the light reflected by clouds. In those regions Sentinel 1 is an interesting alternative with active radar, penetrating clouds and revealing the situation on the ground . Palm oil plantations in Indonesia can for example be monitored in an efficient way with Sentinel 1. Giving good opportunities to display if the pal oil produced comes from a sustainable source or from areas with past or ongoing deforestation.
Sentinel 1 image over parts of Sumatra displaying both natural forest and palm oil plantations, shrimp paddies and the Taman National Park.
For detection of forest damage a combination of optic and radar satellite data is useful. With optic data changes in greenness and leaf area can be detected and small changes in both health and caused by management can thus be monitored. Radar data can be used to detect and estimate the effects of wind throws even if the sky continues to be cloudy as often during winter and autumn.
Clearings of different sizes displayed with a plant phenology index at a test site in mid Sweden.
With very high resolution imagery the status of individual trees can be monitored and single tress detected an mapped. This is of interest for both forestry and park management. In combination with lidar data more information can be extracted and presented as texture and height are important information distinguishing between trees, shrubs and other vegetation.
Trees mapped in the southern Swedish city Jönköping, displaying the analytical strength in the combination of EO and lidar data.
Water can be mapped for several reasons and in several different ways.
Together with WSP has Geografiska informationsbyrån mapped the surface area of hydro power reservoirs in northern Sweden. This was done as part of analysis of the current water volume in the reservoirs and can be done on a regular basis to monitor the potential supply potential of hydro energi.
For the Swedish Geological Survey, SGU, Geografiska informationsbyrån has developed a method to detect ditches and other hydrological disturbances in Swedish peatlands. The method is based on lidara data and atomated analyses of the Swedish National Height model with a spatial resolution of two meters.
Risk of flooding can be mapped with to create risk maps for spatial planning and insurance companies, e.g.. The map below is a flood risk map over Järfälla municipality north of Stockholm based on the 2m National Height grid of Sweden.
The future extent of water can be mapped, e.g. for the since more than 100 years planned and debated Stiegler´s Gorge reservoir and hydropower dam in Tanzania, cutting of the Rufiji river and if built creating a huge inland water body in the Selous wilderness. The analysis was made in GEE.
Mapping water can lead to mapping of none water. Oil plattforms in the North Sea are distinkt in the Sentinel 1 data. Water is dark and the platforms are bright as stars on a night sky in August.
Sometimes the water is ubstructing the mapping as is the case of habitat mapping in coastal waters. Sentinel 2 data is a excellent base for habitat mapping in clear waters, and can be used habitat mapping even in Swedish waters.
Rymdstyrelsen har för avsikt att upphandla ett system, Collaborative Ground Segment Sweden (CGSS), som är tänkt som en nationell samlingspunkt för Sentinel- och liknande data av särskilt svenskt intresse.
Rymdstyrelsen har låtit göra två utredningar rörande en svensk plattform för tillgängliggörande av data från Sentinelsatelliterna. Den ena utredningen syftade till att fastställa användarnas behov och den andra till att föreslå möjliga tekniska lösningar för en sådan plattform. De båda utredningarna utgör grunden för den kravspecifikationen som Geografiska Informationsbyrån skall ta fram.
I tillägg till kravspecifikationen skall Geografiska Informationsbyrån gör en utökad användaranalys för att belysa aspekter som inte hanns med i den tidigare rapporten. Bland annat skall behov och möjligheter med molntjänster belysas.